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Einstein was not trying to establish mass-energy; he had other aims. Australia and the world economy today The internationalisation of the world economy in the years up to and following World War I increased in pace after World War II and has continued to do so ever since. In cultural terms also, the official statistics do not always paint a full picture of what it means to live and survive in the Third World. It is both positive and negative. These included Gypsies, homosexuals, and the mentally subnormal. This approach examines the history of science through concrete examples, and is viewed as way of demonstrating the fallibility of science and scientists. Ethically, there is little doubt that scientific fraud is unacceptable. The Cold War has left an alarming legacy. We know the former was a vital node, but it is impossible to tell if the latter was. We need to consider both these possibilities. At best, though, economists have had only mixed success in terms of these two issues. The ritual of Question Time, allowing any member of parliament to ask a minister a question without warning, is intended to ensure this responsibility by forcing ministers to account for their actions and those of the departments they administer. One, marine geology, arose as a result of World War II. McMullin (1987) argues that there are three main types of purely scientific controversy: they concern findings, theories, and principles. In academia, despite changes, the research is still largely pure or basic in nature. If we all wish to 'consume' large amounts of air-conditioning, larger cars and houses and endless kilometres of new roads, then growth will eventually lead to disasters as the world's resources run out or the world becomes polluted beyond tolerance. The article went on to point out that medicine is a self-regulating profession, and is largely beyond the control of patients or the general public. For most of the time, Kuhn argues, scientists work within these paradigms, solving puzzles in terms of the larger framework. The ratio is a measure of how much of the output of an economy is ploughed back to make more productive capacity. Stewart, M. (1972), Keynes and After. < ! “We live in a society exquisitely dependent on science and technology, in which hardly anyone knows anything about science and technology.” — Carl Sagan — Carl Sagan “Science is the key to our future, and if you don’t believe in science, then you’re holding everybody back.” As the quote from Maxwell suggests, we will not be concentrating upon facts and figures, but upon the basic organisation of science, and its particular 'go', the way it works. I prefer to describe these as ecological issues, as the word environment alludes to surroundings. Indeed, Polanyi argued that it must be so, because scientists are just not able to foresee the practical effects of their work (Polanyi 1967:59). The operating principle of an atomic weapon is the divergent selfsustaining chain reaction, and the design brief for the bombmaker is to produce an assembly where this reaction can be realised. In fact, Western science had been known in Japan since almost the beginnings of the so-called Scientific Revolution in Europe. Palaeomagnetism and marine geology: new evidence The break-through for continental drift came quite unexpectedly. There are excellent—and lengthy—guides to the different referencing systems. It has been suggested that the small countries which have been successful in developing high-technology industry are those with their own multi-national corporations; this has been argued to be the basis for the success of Switzerland, Sweden and the Netherlands, for example. Science, Technology, and Society (STS) is an interdisciplinary field that investigates topics relating to the scientific, technological, engineering and. This greater involvement between different sectors and different institutions will be dealt with later. So, it is a particular kind of praise and blame that attaches to moral behaviour. The strange nature of academic science We may define academic science simply as that science which is carried out in academic institutions. Published about twice as many papers as I have.' Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Let's use someone besides Popper: 10. This deprived them of human status. Harmondsworth: Penguin. A brief summary of this kind cannot give the full flavour of the academic science system. To get a drug onto the market, a pharmaceutical company must spend 96 SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES about $US200 million, and work at developing the drug for about ten years (Reuben and Witcoff 1989). The argument 'All pigs lay eggs, Jane is a pig, So Jane lays eggs' is clearly valid, but of course its main premise is false. However, it is certain that this issue will continue to pose profound problems for many years to come. The evidence from the past suggests that the developed world's R&D system (most of which is located within private-sector facilities) is unlikely to respond to such concerns. Harmondsworth: Penguin. There are other systems, such as the Vancouver (Australian Government Publishing Service 1988: 153), and journals often have the irritating habit of modifying existing systems to suit themselves. Believe it or not, you are not finished with the MLA system yet! Court astronomers were expected to predict the dates of eclipses—and sometimes their lives hung on their success! The principle is this: if our person, call her P for short, is both rational and free to act as she will, then Proposition 1 applies. It is clear from the left side of Figure 2.1 that, with minor exceptions, money for science comes from two sources. Without a climate in which new ideas could flourish and in which traditional methods and practices could be challenged and improved, there could have been no Industrial Revolution. A U-235 nucleus will fission if it is hit by a neutron going at a certain speed, not too quick and not too slow. Australia and New Zealand are the only two OECD countries in which the government spends more on R&D than the private sector (McGauran 1996:45). The consequences of the acts are not of interest, only the fact that God has spoken about them. Our destiny is inextricably intertwined with the overall health of that eco-system. London: Sage. In addition, it is clear that science is not cheap. are not used in the Harvard system: you have to keep mentioning the author, date and page number. Arguments over theory are complex because they go beyond the question of which theory best fits an agreed body of evidence. Processes must be clearly laid down so that complaints can be made and investigated. An unqualified statement of the realities of modern political parties comes from one Australian analyst: SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND PUBLIC POLICY 193 The major political parties are run by self-perpetuating executive oligarchies and tiny memberships; and the people they choose, when in Parliament, consider that their main duty is to keep in office as Ministers, irrespective of their performance, a collection of party hacks who behave as yet another oligarchy in relation to the parliamentary members, but are actually the serfs of the bureaucracy. Inevitably, therefore, scientists differ on what counts as a relevant factor in doing an experiment. The research frontier is where all new knowledge is produced. So is the overthrow, by Galileo and others, of the idea that the Earth stands immobile at the centre of the universe. In 1836, to take as an illustration, Charles Darwin, during a visit to Tasmania, caught a steam ferry across the Derwent and noted in his diary: 'The machinery of one of these vessels was entirely manufactured in this colony, which, from its very foundation, numbered only three-and-thirty years!' He did not accept that human rights and considerations should be extended to them. This Earth is the only home we have and the only home we are ever likely to have. 26) All Corporate and Associate members of the Institute shall observe and be bound by the following Code of Ethics. Within the thousands of pages of a large periodical, how can you find what you want? Unlike cultivating land, or trying to sell products to a given population, we do not begin with the most profitable and proceed to the least: we cannot predict the profitability of technology. This is especially true for foreign students, who have to pay full fees. It shows where the largest amounts of money come from to support science, where that money goes, and where the scientists are. This came to a head in 1633 when Galileo was forced to renounce the view that the Earth moved. Two important things emerge from Milgram's study. Structure We argued above that the term society can be considered as applying either to the scientific community, or to the wider society, which includes us all. One reason for this can probably be traced to the media, where scientists— whether academic, industrial or government employed—are often called 'Professor', which is an academic rank. At the same time, teachers need to develop a sound understanding of issues from various disciplines—philosophy, history, geography, social studies, politics, economics, environment and science. So again, it is more plausible to attribute responsibility to Frisch and Peierls than to Einstein. Government science is by far the most complex of the three sectors, as there does not seem to be a simple way of summarising why this large sector exists. As of January 1, 2021, EASTS is no longer published by Duke University Press. (1966), Invention and Economic Growth. He edits the journal Metascience. In the 1920s the doctors located 399 men in Tuskegee who had syphilis. Cambridge, Mass. So the chapter begins with a quick outline of the Manhattan Project, moves on to identify the conditions under which responsibility can be attributed, and concludes with discussion of the neutrality of science. It would be surprising indeed if anything properly called an industrial revolution could result from the first kind of change alone: we would expect at least a degree of technical change. The bombardier caused the explosion by arming and releasing Little Boy, and the navigator caused it too, by charting the course from the home base on the island of Tinian to Hiroshima. The other—the New Zealand cervical cancer scandal—involved both science and medical technology, but took place primarily in the larger community. This story has an unclear ending. Another problem is that the collective impact of a set of decisions based on individual self-interest can be detrimental to the collective interest of the group. The newly industrialised countries are expanding their capability to use new technology and consequently move beyond their traditional industries. Volvo, Saab and Scania also began at this time. Important discoveries, yet Meitner never received the Nobel Prize, and McClintock had to wait until 1983—when she was in her eighties —for hers. The most obvious is: why were the men not told about their disease? (ed.) What we learn from Nazi science may help us to understand more recent cases. Perhaps the most bitter and long-running of these is known as the 'Baltimore affair', after Nobel Prize-winning scientist David Baltimore. There were numerous ways of building this new capability. As Walsh has pointed out: Firms in a country with a small domestic market will have to export to gain the benefits of economies of scale and to recoup the money spent on R&D. I do not underestimate the scale of the problems; the decisions to be made in the next ten or twenty years are probably more critical than any in the previous history of the human species (Brown et al. Demographic changes and the rise of the cotton towns are no less dramatic. Two of the group (Aravinda and Chu) prefer strawberry to chocolate, with only Betty liking chocolate more than strawberry. He therefore began a course of 'conservative treatment' for women referred to him. (1994) have written a careful analysis of how science is changing, and how the different types of science are beginning to merge. The experimenter takes you into the laboratory. Another important economist who analysed technological change in terms of waves (or 'swarms' as he termed them) of innovation was Schumpeter, who published his major book, Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy, in 1942. Neddermeyer, as a matter of fact, produced one vital node in the causal net that led to Nagasaki; so according to Proposition 4, he was causally responsible. Or what? Therefore, it is worth a corporation's while to invest in pure research. The three premises are supposed to establish the truth of the first part of the conclusion, that technology is neutral. Some see it as essential to a sustainable society (WCED 1987), while others see it as the main problem (Daly 1991). Kor, Eva Mozes (1992), 'Nazi Experiments as Viewed by a Survivor of Mengele's Experiments', in Caplan (1992): 3-8. We spend billions of dollars each year on science and technology, but devote only a tiny fraction of those resources to evaluating its consequences. In addition, some groups had no right to life. Additionally, the power of information technology means that new techniques move much more rapidly from one part of the world to another. However, British industrialisation could not be sustained by textiles forever: a commodity cannot be price-elastic without limit! The printed version of the 1991 Boyer Lectures by Fay Gale and Ian Lowe, Changing Australia, discusses the role of education and technology in shaping the future. A member shall not be involved with harassment of another person in the course of professional activities, shall not condone such behaviour in a colleague or permit such behaviour by a subordinate. First, as we have seen, academics are under great pressure to publish their results and so further their careers. Merrilee H. Salmon, 'Explanation in the Social Sciences', in Philip Kitcher and Wesley C. Salmon (eds), Scientific Explanation (Minnesota: Minnesota University Press, 1989), p. 309. (The demand for cotton was not exclusively domestic: one of the great advantages of cotton over wool was that there were large export markets for the former. It has been observed that there is a short-term cycle, which normally lasts about seven years. Naturally, strong arguments raged among the doctors at the National Women's Hospital over Green's course of treatment. It should be on the essential reading lists of all scientists with an interest in developing countries". It is not clear whether their effects will be the same, or spectacularly different. So we need to build in the idea that the actions and decisions were undertaken voluntarily—alluded to in our principle by the words 'free to act'. In this case, the results of scientific investigation are argued over. Out of fifteen results, fourteen make good sense. Etzioni, A. Improvements, then, were needed, and in 1836 a technique was devised in which the hydrochloric acid was funnelled into a tower and washed out. Berggren, C. (1993), The Volvo Experience: Alternatives to Lean Production in the Swedish Auto Industry. This invention was quite independent of that by the betterknown Sir Charles Parsons in England, whose Turbinia first sailed under steam-turbine power in 1897 (Gustavson 1986). However, the women who suffered in this way would pay with their lives, which is clearly against every precept of medicine. Becker 1976). For example, suppose you have written: A scientist, whether theorist or experimenter, puts forward statements, or systems of statements, and tests them step by step.3 At the end of the text, you place a third endnote: 1 2 3. (1991), Science and Technology in History: An Approach to Industrial Development. For example, the development of radar led to the field of radio astronomy, which has transformed our view of the universe. At this meeting, 3500 diplomats and advisers, 700 UN officials and 120 heads of state met in order to 'elaborate strategies and measures for promoting sustainable development and reversing environmental degradation' (TheEcologist 1993:v). The second point is that ethical codes are helpful, but they do not solve the problem. Students gain opportunities to engage with, and deeply examine the impact of scientific development on their lives from a critical and informed perspective. Each year, most scientific departments and centres publish a research report, which consists mostly of lists of the papers they have published. Since the court can strike them off the list, it has real power. Rather than continuing to seek answers to this question, perhaps it is time to ask a different one, namely, who wants to introduce what kind of technology, who owns and controls it, and who is going to benefit? An open discussion at any stage of the project would probably have concluded that it was, at least, suspect. One might be tempted to tease out of the foregoing discussion some general explanation of the Industrial Revolution and its attendant features, such as the rise of the factory system. We need to make a clear distinction between development, a pattern of change which is seen as being desirable, and growth, an increase in flows of material goods. There is usually a specific goal in mind, and teams of scientists and technologists collaborate to reach that goal. (1992), 'Abuse of Human Beings for the Sake of Science', in Caplan (1992): 235-70. From time to time, people leave one job—voluntarily or otherwise—and move to another. In later years, however, you may come to see the value of discursive endnotes. The celebrated instance of the dismissal of the Whitlam government by the then Governor-General was in clear breach of this principle; there has been a continuing debate in Australia about whether the action of Sir John Kerr was strictly legal, but there can be no doubt that he breached the Westminster conventions (Sawer 1948:23; Whitlam 1978). Greenberg, D. (1969), The Politics of Pure Science. The entrepreneur is not simply a businessperson, but someone who has the capacity to make changes in business or any other area. The interesting thing about this tale is that it took place in April 1945, a bare three months before the first atomic bomb was dropped, but some forty years after the Einstein formula was discovered and expressed in the special theory of relativity. Science, technology and the Swedish economy Sweden is another country which has successfully harnessed science and technology to economic needs. Virtually all firms have non-disclosure agreements, 76 SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES which employees sign when they are hired. For example, rather than learning about the facts and theories of weather patterns, students can explore them in the context of issues such as global warming. They postulated that a new form of knowledge was appearing, as a result of the breaking down of the barriers between the different sectors. McCloskey, I. Disability, Sport and Society The support that the Japanese government has provided for the motor vehicle industry has been most effective. In 1769 Watt improved the engine by adding a small condensing chamber and valve connector. Scientific journals are not the big scientific magazines—such as New Scientist and Scientific American—but highly specialised publications, mostly devoted to publishing research papers. Dean Jaensch summarises the Westminster conventions as follows, noting that they are not legally binding or enforceable, but rely on the willing compliance of all involved (Jaensch 1986:111). By almost every moral and religious code that humanity has devised, mass murder and torture of the kind Mengele carried out is condemned. The Commission on Sustainable Development, which was the body designated to follow up and implement the Agenda 21 program, made only slow progress in the years following the Earth Summit. Flannery (1994) outlines the history of life in Australia, pointing out how humans—especially in the last two hundred years—have been having impacts upon the Australian environment. There were good reasons for this: large firms commanded more resources than small ones, and could absorb risks and losses more easily. However, no dramatic results appeared: nothing new was learned about the action of the disease. In accordance with our remarks about technical and technological change, it is possible that some such 'leading sectors' might have been growing vigorously, fuelled by technical change, but the gains of the economy as a whole look much more modest. (1989), Living in the Greenhouse. No such list exists in the case of scientists. Indeed, even before that time—from at least the fourteenth century—Japanese artisans had been making swords, for example, from high-grade steel smelted from iron-bearing sand, a technique pioneered by the Japanese (see Pacey 1990). These large sums tell us that decision-makers in government and industry are strongly convinced of the importance of developing science and technology. These standards, of course, vary from situation to situation. It could be argued that it is about regulation versus freedom of choice, but it is clearly not in the same category as, say, the seat-belt controversy. The reasons for this are clear. This happens because, by law, professions such as doctors and lawyers can work only if they are on a list of approved practitioners. And there were practical problems as well: how did one break off a rock sample for analysis without hitting it with a hammer, and so destroying its magnetic orientation (Frankel 1987:223)? A black nurse was at the centre of the project and black doctors cooperated with it. This concentration of effort can also lead to the neglect of promising alternatives, the exploration of which would be in the longterm interests of society as a whole. In consequence, animal experimentation is morally wrong and indeed is abominably cruel. An early document in the debate on freedom and planning from the freedom camp isj. To date, there is limited evidence of the success of the strategy; most of the co-operative research ventures which have been established are instances of co-operation between large countries, making it more difficult for small economies to compete. Perhaps the simplest and most useful of the abstracts and indexes is one known as APAIS—the Australian Public Affairs Information Service. The Capri program ended in 1994, but Ford Australia has recently (1996) announced plans to produce another small model to replace it, utilising a similar export credit arrangement under the car plan. The Swedish-British International Automotive Design and Clean Air Transport consortium has already won a contract from the Los Angeles council to design and build an electric vehicle specifically for use in that smog-bound city (Sunday Mail, Brisbane, 4 February 1996). If scientists are in fact policing themselves properly, it seems reasonable to ask, how can there be so many cases of fraud and misconduct? The reality, of course, is less clear. Chapter 7 shows how modern nations pursue economic growth as a desirable goal. For example, in what sense can research in Antarctica be described as due to market failure, or to the concept of public good? Adam Smith, for example, anticipated that great increases in productive power could be achieved through the effects of the division of labour, by which a production process was broken down into a series of simple and repetitive tasks which could be easily performed by unskilled labour. One major outcome of this policy was the production of the Holden car, American-owned but built and partly designed in Australia, which first came off the Fisherman's Bend assembly line in 1948. One might say that, although Kray killed people, he didn't mean to do it. Ill 112 IN THE WIDER SOCIETY some of which were significant enough to count as technological change. (ed.) Instead, only two continents straddle the equator, Africa and South America, with the others well north or south of it. The other perspective has the general name of deontology. This has restarted the debate about the freedom of science which first surfaced as a response to 'Bernalism'. Coney, S., and Bunkle, P. (1987), 'An "Unfortunate Experiment" at National Women's', Metro, 7:47-65. There have always been some local impacts of productive activity, as reflected in the old Yorkshire saying 'Where there's muck, there's brass', roughly translated as saying that making money always makes a bit of a mess. McRobie, George (1982), Small is Possible. Todd, J. As before, we restrict our attention to Britain, with the statistics shown in Table 6.4. This was considered important in making science accessible and meaningful to all students—and, most significantly, engaging them in real world issues (Fensham, 1985; Solomon, 1993; Aikenhead, 1994 and Hodson 1998). This organisation did not represent an occupational or economic interest, but consisted of people who wanted to change the Queensland electoral system. New York: Simon and Schuster. The theories we have considered in the chapter, though, place technology at the heart of economic analysis, and we believe that this is the correct approach. 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